After Paris and Marrakesh, Bonn is hosting the 23rd Conference of the Parties (COP23) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under the Presidency of the Republic of Fiji. For two weeks, delegates from 197 countries will negotiate how to effectively implement the Paris Agreement. The kick-off on 6th of November was marked by a unified call to further strengthen the global response to climate change.
What to expect from COP23?
High on the COP23 agenda is to further define guidelines for implementing the 2015 Paris Agreement, which commits member countries to take voluntary actions in order to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. Countries also agreed to raise the ambition of their national targets more ambitious over the coming years. So far, national pledges under the Paris Agreement do not add up to keep within the 2-degree limit.
The guidelines or the “Paris Rulebook”, which is to be negotiated during COP23 will facilitate the implementation of the Paris Agreement and establish how each country will put its commitments into practice. The guidelines are expected to be finalized during next year´s climate talks: the meeting of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI44) and COP24. The guidelines are to enable countries to communicate, report and review their climate action as well as raise the ambition of their NDCs in a manner that is transparent and accountable to the international community.
The editors of the leading scientific journal Nature put it this way: “The Bonn meeting will serve as a litmus test of how the rest of the world plans to stand united [without the US] and to keep the spirit of Paris alive.”
How far has Mexico advanced in preparing the implementation of its climate commitments?
Over that past decade, Mexico has taken international leadership in climate policy. Mexico was the first emerging country to present its nationally determined contribution (NDC), committing to unconditionally reduce GHG emissions by 22 per cent by 2030. Subject to international funding and support, Mexico could reduce emissions even by up to 36 per cent. Regarding Mexico´s energy transition, the country has set ambitious goals to produce 35 per cent of energy from clean energy sources by 2024. In line with the commitments under the Paris Agreement, Mexico was one of the first countries to submit its Mid-Century Strategy at last year’s COP 22 in order to cut emissions by 50 per cent by 2050. Complementing its international commitments, Mexico has a comprehensive institutional and legal framework for climate change, including a climate change law.
Mexico was also the first country to include an adaptation chapter in its NDC, which defines 21 adaptation targets and actions. The most important targets include a zero-deforestation rate and halving the number of “most vulnerable” communities by 2030. Additionally, the NDC foresees a number of actions, including the development of early-warning systems to protect the population more effectively from extreme weather events.
Mexico is currently working on the implementation of its NDC targets and actions. For its unconditional mitigation target, sector targets and measures were defined and economically evaluated based on a participative, inter-sectoral process. A similar costing-exercise is currently carried out for Mexico´s conditional mitigation target with the support of Germany.
Mexico´s side events at COP 23
At the sidelines of the official intergovernmental negotiations, a series of side events are organized to allow fruitful discussions on topics including mitigation, adaptation and transparency and financing. To name but a few, Mexico´s participation will be of particular interest in the following side events:
Latin America and the Caribbean: Mobilizing Investors for Implementation of the Paris Agreement
14 Nov 2017. 16:45—18:15. Meeting Room 4.
LAC is at the forefront for efforts to move onto a sustainable development pathway consistent with the objectives of the Paris Agreement. The event will consider approaches towards mobilizing investment in sustainable infrastructure and landscapes for implementation of countries SDGs and NDCs. Speakers include Mr. Juan Carlos Arredondo Brun, General Director for Climate Change Policies at the Mexican Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT).
NDC Accounting of GHG emissions: First-hand experiences from pilot activities
17 Nov 2017. 11:30—13:00. Meeting Room 9.
Accounting for NDC emission reductions is a cornerstone of the climate architecture. It provides countries a meaningful tool to track the achievement of NDCs and certainty to the international community about the latter. The side event presents first-hand experiences from the regional International Climate Initiative (IKI) projects “Accounting Rules” operative in Costa Rica, Colombia and Mexico. Speakers include representatives from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment BMUB, Costa Rican Ministry for the Environment (MINAE), Oeko-Institut (German Institute for Applied Ecology e.V.) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH .
Advancing Law & Governance Contributions to Climate Action under the Paris Agreement
10 November 2017. 09:00-18:00. University Forum, University of Bonn, Heussallee 18-24, 53113 Bonn.
This event convenes a community of judges, law faculties and legal institutes, government authorities, law associations, and others responsible for inspiring, innovating and building law and governance capacity. The one day symposium focuses on advances in climate law and governance to implement the global climate regime. The workshop “Implementing the Paris Agreement Sub-nationally – Legal Barriers and Instruments for Improving Multi-Level Climate Governance” will look at how cities and other sub-national actors can live up to their potential for mitigating climate change and enhancing resilience to climate change. Speakers include Emily Castro, GIZ project coordinator for Mexico of the global IKI project “Vertically Integrated Climate Protection”. The event is hosted by GIZ and World Resources Institute (WRI) and takes place from 10.30 to 11.30. Redes: Twitter #CLGD2017 @CLGInitiative.
Find out more about side events at COP23.